as of August 2008
Finding James B. Wardís Parents
A Condensed Version of Three Previous Papers with New Research Added
Over the past decade I have carried out four separate research efforts trying to find the parents of James B. Ward of Dale County, AL.† Each effort generated new finds but ultimately failed to locate his parents.† This failure was not from lack of reliable data to work with, though one could certainly wish for more.† The failure was from not properly applying the data I had.† The clues were there; I just hadnít interpreted them properly.† My purpose here is show how to use the limited reliable information still available today on James B. Ward to trace him back to his parents.
In a separate effort, not included here, I had already proved that James B. Wardís parents were not John and Nahoga Ward and that the Monroe Letter and the Ward Report were fraudulent documents created to ďproveĒ a Ward link to the Creek Indians.† That separate paper also proved that Jamesí wife, Elizabeth English, was not a full-blooded Creek Indian.† It is too long to wicker into this paper but Ward researchers who still think Nahoga was Jamesí mother or that Elizabeth English was ďfull-bloodedĒ Creek Indian, should read that paper before beginning this one.† You can find a copy here.
With the two main documents upon which many late-twentieth century researchers had built their Ward lineage proved bogus, I started over using only government documents I could trust as genuine.† Even affidavits sworn out in the 1950s claiming Elizabeth English to be full-blooded Creek Indian are now useless since we know that wasnít so.
Starting over necessarily meant trying various approaches until I finally understood how to fit the remaining clues together to find Jamesí birth place and parents.† In this paper I have resisted the temptation to describe the false starts and initial failures in the interest of brevity.† So, I begin with the first research effort Ė condensed to far less than half its original size.
From the First Research Effort
James B. Ward
What Do We Really Know?
For my first effort, my primary goal was a modest one: to positively locate James in the 1820 census and subsequently in every census until his death in the 1860s.† The farthest back I had found record of James B. Ward was Dec 1813 when he enlisted at Hartford, Pulaski County, Georgia in Captain John Thomasí Company of the Georgia Militia.†
I began by locating Captain John Thomas figuring James might be living near him.† It turns out Captain Thomas was in Laurens County, GA in August of 1812.† Itís the right Thomas because he is listed several times in Laurens County records as Captain.† In 1820 he was on page 9 of the Laurens County census and listed as Major.† I also know James B. Ward applied in 1859 in Dale County, AL for land for his services in early 1814 and mentioned Captain John Thomas as his commander.
With John Thomas located, I turned to finding all the James Wards in 1820 Georgia, Alabama and Florida.† They were as follows:
There was also a James Ward in the 1820 Alabama census index in Franklin County but I was not able to locate him.† I did find a Jesse Ward whom I suspect was listed incorrectly in the index as James.† There were no Wards listed in Florida but it was still Spanish.
The Appling County James has 2 sons and 3 daughters that donít fit the family of James B. Ward so I can discard him That leaves only the two James in Wilkinson County.
One of these is almost certainly James B. Ward but which one?† Well, four of James B. Wardís children married into the family of Chesley Purvis and Lydia Wright.† And Chesley is on page 215 of the 1820 Wilkinson County census.† But Lydia is with her father on page 222.† So itís hard to say which James is James B. based on the Purvises and Wrights, however, the Purvis/Wright connection certainly supports one of these Wards as being James B. Ward.† If we go forward to 1830 Wilkinson County, though, there is only one James Ward and he has three daughters in the 10-16 bracket.† That accounts for the daughter shown with the James Ward on page 214 plus two more apparently born in the 1820s but listed incorrectly.† Anyway, our James had sons by then so this canít be him.† We know from The History of Wilkinson County, GA† that the Ward on page 214 married Sarah Jones.† So James B. Ward was on page 221.
What exactly have we now gained by locating James B. Ward in 1820?† Well, it lets us ask whether there were others there with him who might provide clues to where he came from or who his parents were?
I began looking for a nearby James English who could have been Elizabeth English Wardís father.† A James English was living in 1820 Wilkinson County.† That James English and his wife, however, were both in the 16-26 age bracket so they canít be Elizabethís parents.† Where, then, was the James English who raised Elizabeth?
In the records of Laurens County which abuts Wilkinson on the south is mention of James English of Baldwin County who sold property in 1808.† Baldwin County abuts Wilkinson County to the north.† As an added note, a James Ward paid taxes in Baldwin County in 1815.† I have found evidence that this is James B. Ward and will cover this a bit later.† He may have met Elizabeth then since a James English lived there in 1808 and perhaps until 1815 or later.† Then in 1819, a James English owned land on Turkey Creek in Laurens County.† In 1819 he also appraised a brace of hogs with Abraham Payne in Laurens County. †So we have James Ward in 1820 Wilkinson County bracketed by James English to the north and Captain John Thomas (and later James English) to the south.†
Youíll notice that our James Ward had a female 45+ living with him in 1820.† This may be his mother since Elizabethís father was still alive up to about 1837.† So perhaps we shouldnít be looking for Jamesí father in 1820 since his mother was almost certainly a widow if she was living with him.† We need to go to 1830 and see if we can find a James Ward with a female over 55 living with him. But first we have to go to Jackson County, FL where James lived for most of the 1820s.
A Florida Side Trip
This document indicates that James Ward was in Florida before the 17th of July 1821 -- just after his first son, John Jackson Ward, was born in GA the 16th of Feb 1821. Perhaps thatís why his property on Natís Creek was sold for taxes as shown below.† The source was in Genealogical Abstracts from the Georgia Journal (1819-1823). The following is from the 7 May 1822 Milledgeville Newspaper.
This shows us where James B. Ward owned land in 1822 (provided we can locate that creek today).† It may also explain why he ended up in Florida.† Perhaps Robert Adams paid the back taxes and received the property as compensation.
Moving on -- in the Territorial Papers of the United States, Volume XXIII, pages 948-949 was a Petition to Congress by Inhabitants of Jackson County, Florida Dec 11, 1827.† A note at the end of the list stated that they are citizens of the county.
Among the 140 signers were: John Ward, Nathan Ward, James Ward, Matthew Tucker, John Roach, and John Smith.
All of the names listed above fall within a span of 13 lines on page 217 of the 1830 Dale County census. This indicates that the Wards listed in 1827 were closely connected and that the James Ward listed is James B. Ward whom we know to be on page 217 of the 1830 Dale County Census.† In 1830 all of these Wards were in either the 30-40 or 40-50 age brackets and could, therefore, be brothers.
As further evidence that this is actually James B. Ward in Florida in 1827, in 1900 his third son, Thomas Jefferson Ward born in 1825, listed his birth state as Florida.† In other censuses, however, he listed Alabama as his birth state.† Toward the end of this paper we shall see why Jamesí sons born between 1820 and 1830 listed AL as their birth state.
Back up into Alabama
By 1830 we only need to look in Alabama for James Wards since all of his children after the first were usually listed as born there.† Here are Jamesí children and their birth years as used in this exercise:
John Jackson WARD†††††††††††††††††††† 1821
James Madison WARD†††††††††††††††† 1823
Thomas Jefferson WARD†††††††††††† 1825
Female WARD †††††††††††††††† ††††††††1826/1829
Wm. Josiah WARD†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† 1830
Benjamin Franklin WARD††††††††††††††††††††††† 1834
Elizabeth WARD†††††††††††††††††††††††††† 1836
Mary WARD†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† 1838
Monroe WARD†††††††††††††††††††††††††††† 1845
depending how those sons born on the cusps of the age brackets were counted and whether William Josiah born in 1830 was counted.
We have a good match with the James Ward on page 217.† He was listed in the census index as Warde.† The ďeĒ at the end is actually an artifact made when the census taker put a dash after many of the surnames on the original census. There is a female child that I donít have in my Ward history but she shows up in 1840, too, so she must be one of the Ward children.† We also have the first real break in the James Ward saga.† Right next to James Ward is Nathan Ward (almost certainly the one from Jackson County, Florida in 1827) aged 40-50 in 1830.† Neither, however, have an older female living with them who could be the woman with James in 1820 Wilkinson County, GA.
Moving on to 1840 weíve got two James Wards in Dale County, AL.
Elizabeth shows up in a younger age bracket but is only off by one.
More Proof James B. Ward was in Wilkinson County in 1820
Another benefit of locating James in 1820 is that we get to see if any of the people around him in Wilkinson County stayed with him after 1820 or were with him before 1820.
In the 1830 Dale County census three people were grouped on the same page with James B. Ward -- Daniel Duniven, James Cooper, and John Calaway.† In 1815 Daniel Dunivent, James Cooper (born 1796 SC), and John Calloway paid taxes in Baldwin County with James Ward.† Daniel Dunevan and John C. Callaway were still there in the 1820 census and also fit the 1830 Dale County census data.† Whatís the probability of three people from Baldwin County, Georgia ending up on the same page in 1830 Dale County, AL with a James Ward who was not the one from the original Baldwin County group?
In 1840 Dale County, James Ward has a J.L.B. McCrone on the census line next to him.† There was a John McCrone in Wilkinson in 1820 on page 222.† McCrone is a rare name.† There was only one in any given census year in the states we are looking in.† John McCrone was 45+ in 1820.† In 1830 he was in Thomas County, GA about 100 miles from Dale County, AL and was in the 50-60 bracket.† In 1840 J.L.B. McCrone was 20-30.† John McCrone had a son the right age to have been J.L.B. in both 1820 and 1830.
In another name match, there was a John Rodgers near James Ward in 1820 Wilkinson County, page 222.† Both John and his wife were in the 26-45 bracket.† In 1838 James Ward sold land in Early County, GA to John Rodgers for the heirs of James English.† In 1840 Early County was a John Rodgers 40-50 and his wife 30-40.† Comparing with the 1820 census ages this would have made John 26-30 in 1820 and his wife 10-20.† In 1850 John was 57 making him 27 in 1820 - a good fit.† In 1840 John had a son in the 20-30 range that fits the young son he had in 1820.
Still another link are two of the spies from Pulaski County who served with James in 1814 - William Ford and James Clark.† Both were in Wilkinson County in 1820 on pages 209 and 203 respectively.† Now weíve got people associated with our Wilkinson County, GA James both before and after 1820.
Timeline for James B. Ward
1813 Hartford, Pulaski County, GA - enlistment as a spy
1814 Hartford, Pulaski County, GA - discharge
1815 Baldwin County, GA - James Ward paid taxes (see above)
1820 Wilkinson County, GA Ė Census records fit
1821 Listed as resident of Jackson Co., FL Ė 1824 Government document
1822 Jamesí land on Natís Creek in GA is sold for fi fa
1827 Signed Jackson County, FL Petition
1829 Sold land in Jackson County, FL
1830 Dale County, AL - Census records fit
1837 Dale County, AL - James English estate settlement records
1840 Dale County, AL - Census records fit
1850 Dale County, AL - Census records
The remainder of the first research effort looked at a potential link between James B. Ward and the John Ward who died at the breastworks on Uchee Creek in late 1813.† I have dropped that rather detailed discussion from this condensation.† It seems highly unlikely that these two are related as father and son.† James was born in SC and there is no evidence John Ward ever lived there.† We also know from Thomas Simpson Woodwardís papers that John Ward died leaving only one son.† It appears James B. Ward had several brothers as we shall see a little later.
The Second Research Effort
James B. Wardís Lineage -- Are We Getting Close Yet?
Did James B. Ward have any brothers?
This second paper dealt with input I had received from various people that James B. Ward had brothers.† One source listed Nathan Ward as a brother and another listed Samuel Pollus Ward.† At the time no evidence of any kind had turned up to support these assertions.† In the absence of any evidence on these alleged brothers, I started to gather data on Nathan and Samuel to see if I could establish that they werenít brothers of James B Ward since confirming they were brothers would be nearly impossible.
That search led down numerous avenues until a picture emerged that seemed to trace many of the Wards found around James B. Ward in 1820 Wilkinson County, GA; 1821-1827 Jackson County, FL; and 1830 Dale County, AL back to Spartanburg, SC.† I have carried the relevant data from that effort over to the final section of this paper.† This paring down of the data will, I hope, greatly simplify the explanations of how I finally located James B. Wardís parents.
The Third Research Effort
The Real Lineage of James B. Ward of† Dale County, AL
Finally Making a Link to his Parents
A Brief Introduction
At the end of my last attempt to find James B. Wardís parents I was left pondering the loose ties I had discovered to potential brothers and to some Ward families back in 1800 Spartanburg, SC.† At that point several Ward families could have been James B. Wardís family and one family looked particularly good but I had run out of easy clues to confirm any connections.† For several years I hoped for a document to turn up naming a parent or sibling or at least Jamesí place of birth.† It didnít happen, though.† It probably never will.
Then about two years ago I began to consider different approaches to tracing James B. Ward to his family.† I soon realized that the scientific method could be used on these hard-to-trace Ward families.
Science works by formulating testable, i.e. falsifiable, hypotheses to explain known facts and to make new predictions.† In science, as in all of life, there is no certainty.† Science does not prove hypotheses to be true but instead tests them repeatedly to see if they can be proved false.† If even one flaw is found, an hypothesis fails.† If after a time no flaws are found, then scientists gain confidence that the hypothesis is correct.† A new piece of evidence can come along at any time, however, and disprove any hypothesis no matter how long it has stood.† In science, therefore, nothing is ever ďproved.Ē† Since we can never ďproveĒ how all those southern Wards are interrelated, the scientific method looks like it might be right up our alley.
Now in setting up an hypothesis in genealogy it pays to state it as specifically and in as much detail as the known facts allow because that makes it easier to disprove if it is wrong.† More specificity also makes it more likely to be true if it canít be disproved in any area.† The hypothesis, of course, also has to explain all of the data already known.† If such an hypothesis can be formulated and not proved false after an exhaustive number of checks are run against both it and its predictions, then we gain confidence that the hypothesis is right.† The rest of this paper deals with assessing such an hypothesis about the makeup of James B. Wardís early family from 1790 to 1820.† With this new research approach in mind,† I returned to the early census data of South Carolina.
FORMULATING AN HYPOTHESIS
I at least knew from census data, county documents, and wills used in my last effort that:
We know the elder woman was not Elizabeth English Wardís mother because Elizabethís father was still alive at that time. †We can then pretty safely guess that the elder woman was Jamesí mother and that Jamesí father must, therefore, have died before 1820.†
I started with this hypothesis:† That the Samuel, Solomon, Nathan and John Wards associated with James B. Ward were his brothers; that their father died before 1820; and that their widowed mother lived with them in Wilkinson County, GA in 1820.
This hypothesis is specific enough that if it is wrong I will fairly quickly find that there are no Ward families exactly matching this detailed description and will have refuted the hypothesis.† As you will notice as you read further, this hypothesis leads to many new predictions about James B. Wardís childhood family.† That is, things that must be true in order for the hypothesis to be true -- like having age slots for each of the hypothesized brothers in the families we find and those same families disappearing from SC by 1820 because they should be in GA with James.† Much of what follows merely checks those unstated predictions as they spin off of the hypothesis.
So, once we find SC Ward families using the given names listed above, we need to sort out those whose father died prior to 1820.† Then we have to determine those that were no longer in SC by 1820 Ė because they will have moved to Wilkinson County, GA with James B. Ward.† If we find such a family, and only one such family, and James B. Ward fits into it along with Solomon, Samuel, John and Nathan Ward we can be pretty sure we have James B. Wardís parents.
For the remainder of this paper I will present evidence for two main concepts.† The first is that the Wards in and around 1820 Wilkinson County, GA are out of Spartanburg, SC.† The second is that James B. Ward is closely related to those Wilkinson County Wards and is, therefore, also from Spartanburg.† The process of verifying these two concepts will ultimately leave us with a single couple who are the only ones in 1800 SC who could be James B. Wardís parents.†† Donít lose track of these two concepts as you get into the tangle of details in this research.† Both concepts are necessary because there is insufficient reliable data on James B. Ward alone to prove convincingly that he came out of Spartanburg.† To make a valid connection he must be linked to others who can be shown convincingly to have come from Spartanburg.
First, though, I need to match our 1820 Wilkinson County, GA Wards to some SC Wards.† Because the names Solomon, Nathan and Samuel are quite uncommon in the South during the 1820s (I present evidence to back this up a little later) I figured there might be a reason for our Wards bearing those particular names.† Such as them all being from the same family group.
FINDING NATHAN, SOLOMON, AND SAMUEL WARDS IN EARLY SC
First I needed to get a handle on how many SC Ward families have the names Nathan, Solomon or Samuel as heads of household.
So, by 1800 we have the names Nathan twice and Solomon once in Spartanburg and Samuel once in Pendleton.† Thatís a good start.† Less than one family in 200 back then was headed by Nathans or Solomons and we find three Ward families in Spartanburg in 1800 using these names.† The only other family that uses one of the three names is the Samuel in Pendleton and, while Samuel is used eight times more frequently than Nathan or Solomon, there is only one in 1800.† That puts into perspective how unusual it is finding a Nathan or a Solomon Ward back then.† Finding three together in the same county is even more remarkable.
Moving along, letís check those Pendleton Wards first.† There were only two Pendleton Wards.† They donít have the names Nathan or Solomon with them so I suspect they arenít who we are looking for.† Comparing them against our hypothesis shouldnít take long.† The two families are shown below in 1800 and it looks like James B. Ward could be there as well.† James would have been about 4 in 1800.
By 1810 there are two Samíls in Pendleton.† Neither, however, has a place for now 14 year old James B. Ward.† That rules out the two Samuel Wards in Pendleton as James B. Wardís family.† But now there are, in all, four Ward families in 1810 Pendleton.† None, however, had places for Samuel, Solomon, John and Nathan Ward.† Mark Ward, though, had moved to Logan County, KY by 1810.
Mark could still have James with him in 1810 KY but in 1820 Mark is still alive in St Clair County, IL so isnít dead as required by the hypothesis.† He looked like this in 1820:† 010101 Ė 00102.† We can be pretty sure itís the same Mark Ward.† There was only one in the US in 1810.† There were only two in 1820. The other was in Columbus County, NC.
So James B. Ward didnít come from the Pendleton Wards.† The census data certainly support that conclusion.
On the upside, that Spartanburg Ward group has all of the names we are looking for.† But before getting into them I first want to run some checks on the GA Wards in Wilkinson County to see if thereís any evidence that they are, in fact, from Spartanburg.
IS JAMES B. WARD IN 1820 WILKINSON COUNTY, GA REALLY LIVING AMONG FAMILIES FROM 1810 SPARTANBURG COUNTY, SC?
To answer this question, I used digital copies of the entire censuses of 1810 Spartanburg, SC and 1820 Wilkinson County, GA.† I combined color-coded copies of the 1810 Spartanburg, SC and 1820 Wilkinson County, GA censuses and sorted them alphabetically in a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet bringing like names together so I could tell at a glance which families showed up in both censuses.† This produced far too much data to include here, however.
So to give an idea of how those names fell out, I identified the 1810 Spartanburg names in 1820 Wilkinson County by showing Spartanburg families as an ďsĒ in the Wilkinson County census.† I then converted the remaining Wilkinson County names to a ď-ď to show the distribution of 1810 Spartanburg names (the ďsĒ) in the remaining 1820 Wilkinson County, GA names (the ď-ď) in one small chart.† That chart is shown below.
Keep in mind, the characters -, s, and W each represent an entire family in the 1820 Wilkinson County census beginning with the first family on the census and going straight through to the last. You can see several groupings of Spartanburg families in the chart above.† All are around Wards.† Solomon and Samuel fall into first group and James B. Ward falls into the second group indicating these groups may have all come into and settled the county together.
I have underlined to better show the Spartanburg groupings around our Wards.† (Iím well aware that just because two families are listed next to each other on the census it doesnít necessarily mean they were neighbors. Depending on where the census enumerator started after each break and how he navigated through a community, two families listed together could be widely separated or, conversely, two families widely separated on the census could be neighbors.† In the absence of evidence to the contrary, however, betting two families listed together also lived near each other will win you a lot more money than betting the opposite.)
There were 956 families in 1820 Wilkinson County, GA with 59 having first and last names from Spartanburg.† Thatís an average of 6 percent.† Looking at the grouping with Samuel and Solomon Ward, out of 24 families, 6 have Spartanburg names Ė an average of 25 percent.† The grouping with James B. Ward is 22 families with 6 Spartanburg names Ė an average of 27 percent.† The concentration of Spartanburg names is over four times greater with our Samuel, Solomon and James B. Ward groups than with the county as a whole.†
Lets take a deeper look into those families listed in 1810 Spartanburg and 1820 Wilkinson to see if the names disappear from the Spartanburg 1820 census.† Here are those Spartanburg families in their order of appearance in the 1820 Wilkinson County census. The groupings are shown in light green.
Since they appear in the order they were listed in the census, you could match each name to its corresponding ďsĒ or ďWĒ in the 1820 Wilkinson County Census Chart shown above.
Next I compared these 1820 Wilkinson County names to the same names in 1820 Spartanburg to see if they disappeared from Spartanburg.† If they didnít, I assumed they were just different people with the same first and last names.† I quickly realized I couldnít compare all of the names in a reasonable time so I tried to find names near Wards in both the 1810 and 1820 censuses since they would be more significant as a connection.
Many of these families are as hard to trace as our Wards but the table below does show that many of the names disappear from Spartanburg after 1810 and are in Wilkinson County, GA by 1820.† It would take extensive research to actually prove these families are out of Spartanburg and I have not done that.† With that in mind, researchers should view these matches as merely one more piece of circumstantial evidence that the groups with our Wards in 1820 came from Spartanburg.
William Davis is of special interest since he is listed right next to Solomon Ward in 1820.† He is a fit to the 1810 Spartanburg William Davis.† Even though there is another Wm Davis in 1820 Spartanburg, there is no male actually shown in that census.† So Iíll boldface Wm Davis to show him as a potential Spartanburg transplant.
Thomas Lewis compares well between the two censuses as the same family plus heís gone from 1820 Spartanburg.† There is more on the Wilkinson County Thomas Lewis later.† He is definitely from Spartanburg.† He is in the James B. Ward grouping in 1820.† He also links later directly to Samuel and Solomon Ward.
Wm Ford drops from two families in 1810 Spartanburg to one in 1820.† The other seems to be in 1820 Wilkinson.† William Ford was born 1791.† There is another connection to William Ford.† Not only was he in 1810 Spartanburg and 1820 Wilkinson County, he served with James B. Ward as a spy in Capt. Thomasí Militia in 1814.† He is in the Solomon/Samuel grouping in 1820.
Wm Jones could be a fit into 1820 Wilkinson and is not a fit in 1820 Spartanburg but Jones is a common name and the match isnít close enough for my tastes so, even though he is in the Solomon/Samuel grouping, Wm Jones is a negative.
Wm Owens looks like a positive even with the difference in spelling (Owen vs. Owens) since at least one of the 1810 Owens is gone from Spartanburg.† While I didnít count him in the Solomon/Samuel grouping he is only 6 families away from Solomon in 1820.
Alexander McKee is a positive even though he seems to have remarried by 1820.† Alex is also only four families below Elizabeth Ward in the 1810 Spartanburg census.† He is in the 1820 grouping with the last Ward.
Wm Williams is another excellent fit even if a somewhat common name.† At least there were none left in Spartanburg in 1820.† He is in the 1820 grouping with the last Ward.
And James Ross is listed right next to Elizabeth Ward in the 1810 Spartanburg census.
So that gives us seven examples of 1810 Spartanburg families who may be living in 1820 Wilkinson County right next to our Wards.† Considering we are only counting families with a match in both the given and surname that are also grouped with our Wards and not trying to count any children that may have shown up in Wilkinson County, GA ten years later with a different given name, that seems to me to be good evidence that our Wards are with those Spartanburg Wards.
What else do we have that gives us a clue to families back in Spartanburg that might be tied to our Wards?† Well, thereís that 1827 Jackson County, Florida petition.† Plotting the names on that petition against both the 1810 Spartanburg and 1820 Wilkinson County, GA censuses we get a few hits.† As you scan the signatures on the petition you find like surnames strongly grouped.† This indicates the petition was circulated family to family and the order of the signatures has at least some bearing on how close the various people who signed it lived to each other.
There were 140 signatures but only 10 complete names are found in the 1810 Spartanburg census.† Three of those, because of spelling variations or uses of initials, are questionable so I threw them out.† But, running down the list in order we find James Allen and John Smith with only two names separating them and one of those was David Allen who was in 1820 Wilkinson County.† John Smith was one of the names that showed up in 1830 Dale County very near James B. Ward.† Next we find Wm Williams, John Ward, Thos Goff and John Williams all together. †All but Goff were in 1810 Spartanburg.† Prior to this were 21 names with only one match back to 1810.† Then 11 more names with no matches until we hit Nathan Ward and William Allen.† This is followed by another long run with only two matches then James Ward, Josiah Jones and William Wright within six lines.† Then a run to the end with only scattered matches.† Clearly, yet again, the names from Spartanburg correlate closely to our Wards.† I have included all but the doubtful matching names in the table below along with which census those names are found in.
This table further supports the hypothesis that James B. Ward came out of Spartanburg, SC after 1810.† Wm Williams and John Davis who were in both Spartanburg and Wilkinson Counties were also in the groups with our Wards in 1820.†
SORTING OUT THE SPARTANBURG WARDS
Now we need to sort out the Wards in Spartanburg then see if the Wilkinson County Wards fit into any of those families.
Notice that there are only two males from the 1790 Spartanburg census listed in the 1800 census Ė Nathan and James.† We know from other research that Francis and Edmond died before 1800 but not what happened to Penuel, Sam and Wm.† In 1790 note that James, Nathan, Sam and William are all on census page 30 so may be a closely related family unit.
NOTE:† Various data bases use various census page numbering systems.† Many differ from the page numbers written on the actual census.† I use page numbers here only for showing groupings.† If you want to find these people in the census use the index that matches the census data base you are looking in.
By 1800 the 1790 James is on page 205 with a Solomon and a younger Nathan.† There are also two Johns that werenít named on the 1790 census.† It would be easy to assume one of these Johns must belong to James and the other to the elder Nathan and thatís how I initially sorted them out.† As more data came in, however, I discovered this is not the case.† Iíll cover this in more detail a bit later.
Using the 1790 and 1800 censuses, I have tried to separate out the 1810 families by color code.† It was fairly straightforward except for Jonathan and Patsy.† I cover Patsy a little later.† As for Jonathan, there is no place for him in the 1800 families so he must have come in from somewhere else.† Perhaps he is the 1800 Jonathan Ward from Washington in Beaufort County, NC.† A Jonathan Ward shows up in 1820 Greene County, GA not far from James B. Ward.† It could be the same Jonathan if he picked up some folks along the way.† He was listed in 1830 as 112013 10105.† Other GA researchers have Jonathan in GA as early as 1801, however.
Also, it is tempting to jump to the conclusion that the Samuel on the same page with Jonathan is his son but we will find out later that that is probably not the case.
We get a minor break now since the elder James Ward family (shown here in light green)† stayed in Spartanburg and has already been researched as shown below.† That research lets us know which names in light green fit where.† The tables above have the four brothers listed with a corresponding a, b, c, or d to match the numbers in the census to the previously researched names shown below.† The only mismatch is Samuel who is in the wrong age bracket in James Ward Sr.ís 1800 family but has a son and two daughters in 1810 who match the family history of this Samuel.† But that comes later.† The Samuel on page 302 in the 1810 census belongs to the 1790 Nathan Ward, hence the dark green color coding.
THE PROBLEM WITH JAMES JR
The younger 1810 James marked 1c in the census charts above would have been in the 16-26 bracket in 1800 so he had to be with either the elder James or Nathan.† He would also have had a son under ten in 1800.† Only Nathan has a boy under ten with him in 1800 so I initially matched this younger James to Nathan.† In addition, that could be his wife in the 16-26 bracket.† That would make the 45+ female in 1800 Nathanís wife.† So it would appear the Elizabeth Ward in 1810 was Nathanís widow.† This is exactly what we are looking for -- a Ward family whose father died prior to 1820.† But thereís a big problem here.† If Elizabeth is James B. Wardís mother, she wouldnít have another son named James.† And, as we just saw, only Nathan fits our hypothesis.† He died before 1810.† If our hypothesis is correct, there must be another family for this younger James.
As predicted, there is a matching set of people with the elder James in 1800 on page 205 to supply this 1810 James and his wife on page 315.
You would expect that elder James to have a son named James and looking in 1810 there is only one other James in Spartanburg to be that son.† That also puts James in a group in 1800 which has the names Nathan and Samíl Ward.† And we know from other research we will get to later that the elder James had sons named James, Nathan and Samuel.† I like the fit on the same page as Nathan and Samíl but would prefer to see a male under ten with James in 1800 to match the son over ten in 1810.† It may have been a child born just a little too late to make it into the 1800 census.† On the other hand, there is a matching female who is probably the younger Jamesí wife in the 1800 Elder James Wardís household -- and she is gone from Elder Jamesí household in 1810.† If you are uneasy about all the shuffling, note that the outcome agrees with the research already done on this James Ward family as shown in the text box above.
WHAT ABOUT THOSE JOHN WARDS?
How can we show that these two Johns in 1800 do not belong to Nathan and Elizabeth thereby clearing the way for the John Ward from Dale County, AL to be theirs?
Letís return to the 1790 census where Nathan had 4 males under 16 with him and compare that census to 1800 Nathan Sr. with 4 males all of whom would have been under 16 years old ten years earlier.†
Nathan still has all of his 1790 <16 males with him in 1800. And both Johns are listed separately in the census in 1800.† So neither John belongs to Nathan and Elizabeth.
However, the younger John seems to be Nathan Wardís younger brother.† The Spartanburg County Deed Books mention on page 500 a transaction on 31 Oct 1811 of 36 acres granted to Francis Ward deceased being sold by his son John Ward to Lewis Ferguson.† The 1790 Spartanburg census shows two males <16 with Francis.† One of those would have to be the younger John.† Francis is the 1790 Nathan Wardís father.
If you take into account the census data from 1790-1820, the elder John was born in 1774 so he was 16 in 1790.† The census data from 1800 to 1810 has the younger John born 1774-1784.† The LDS has record of a John Ward born 19 Mar 1777 in Spartanburg making him 13 in 1790. Only the younger John fits Francis Wardís <16 sons.
Other researchers list a John Ward born in 1777.† His father was Francis Ward who died in Spartanburg.† The 1811 land sale mentioned above supports this.† Johnís first wife was Lydia Shirley and his second wife was Sally Gentry. John had a son, Addison Ward born 1818, in Spartanburg, SC by Sally and by Lydia had another son, Francis, who had a daughter, Mary, who married a George Martin Hatchette.†† In 1870 Addison was in Kemper County, MS near the Nathan Ward from 1830 Dale County, AL.
Wife of Nathan?
Now we need to check the 1800 Spartanburg households to figure out which of the unnamed elder Ward women is Elizabeth Ward.† In 1810 Elizabeth had two boys 10-16 with her.† In 1800 Nathan had three boys under 10.† But the younger Nathan and one of the Johns also had boys under ten.† However, the women with John and Nathan in 1800 (and each had only one female) were almost certainly their wives as shown with them again in 1810.† I have marked them in bold red with a, b, and c to identify them in 1800.† So in 1810 Elizabeth only fits with the elder Nathan.
Elizabeth, then, is Nathanís widow.† That makes sense since she appears in 1810 and Nathan doesnít.† That may be James B. Ward and one of his brothers with her.
Elizabethís husband, Nathan, was born about 1758 according to Robert G. Adams in The Wards of Ireland.† The 1800 census has him born before 1755.† According to the 1800 census Elizabeth was also 45+ in 1800, so she must have been born before 1755.† This means she was at least 40 when James B. was born in 1795 or 1796 (he is listed as 54 in 1850 and 65 in 1860).† Women almost never have children after age 47 so, if Elizabeth is James B. Wardís mother, she must have been born pretty close to 1755† Ė† probably no earlier than 1750.† It also means James was one of her youngest and should, therefore, turn out to be one of the youngest of the five hypothesized brothers Samuel, Solomon, Nathan, James and John once we get better information on their ages.
Is there anything that might indicate Elizabeth Ward was in Wilkinson County, GA in the 1820s besides the elder woman with James?† Something that mentions her by name maybe.† This extract from the membership roles of Mt. Nebo Baptist Church of Wilkinson County, GA is taken from the Church Minutes of 1808 Ė 1855.
ďElizabeth Ward Ė Dismist 8th Apr. 1826.Ē
She would have been around 71-76 at this time.† Because James, John and Nathan Ward were documented in Jackson County, FL in 1824 and 1827, we know they were in Florida during the time this Elizabeth Ward was dismissed from the Mt. Nebo Baptist Church.† This is important.† First, James had a wife named Elizabeth English Ward so we might have thought this was her if we didnít know that James was already in Jackson County, FL by this time.† Second, it provides a reason for this Mt Nebo Church member to be leaving, i.e. to join her sons.† We also know that one of the other James Wards was married to a Sarah Jones further raising the probability this is the Spartanburg Elizabeth Ward.† Samuel was already in Fayette County by 1826 so it wasnít his wife.† Elizabeth may have been in Wilkinson County with Solomon in 1826.†
Patsy from 1810 Spartanburg had two boys and one girl who would have been under ten in 1800 so we have a problem matching her to the rest of the Spartanburg Wards.† No one in 1800 has both boys and girls under ten.† †At any rate, she doesnít appear to be connected to Nathan and Elizabeth Ward plus other researchers have her with a son, James Madison Ligon born in 1811, not matching in age our James B. Ward born in 1796.
WHICH SPARTANBURG WARDS DEPARTED AFTER 1810?
Now letís see if we can determine which Wards had left Spartanburg by 1820.† We know there are Spartanburg families in Wilkinson County, GA by 1820.† Were there Spartanburg Wards with them? ††Iíll number them off on the two charts below using the 1810 numbers on the 1820 chart to show who is where.